Panaji: Accusing the Congress of misusing the Article 365 of the Constitution time and again to topple State governments during its rule, Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) national president Amit Shah on Saturday said the BJP did not commit Constitutional impropriety while forming a coalition government in Goa.Mr. Shah was speaking at a rally organised by the State BJP, where he and Chief Minister Manohar Parrikar were felicitated for their roles in government formation after the Assembly elections, in which the party came second to the Congress with 13 MLAs in the 40-member Goa Assembly. The Congress had emerged as the single largest party in the polls with 17 MLAs. Seven Ministers had lost their seats from the erstwhile coalition government, including the then Chief Minister Laxmikant Parsekar.The BJP national president also criticised the All India Congress Committee (AICC) General Secretary in-charge of Goa, Digvijay Singh, for failing to swiftly elect a legislative party leader, a key step in government formation post-results.“I want to ask Digvijayji, when BJP leaders with [Union Minister] Nitin Gadkari went to meet the [Goa] Governor, were you even able to elect CLP leader by then? [Congress] were not even able to choose their legislative leader,” he said.The Union Minister for Roads Transport and Highways and Shipping, Mr. Gadkari, credited Mr. Shah as being the architect of the government formation. He also denied any illegality in the process. He revealed some of the behind-the-scenes aggressive manoeuvring done by Mr. Shah, who worked with Prime Minister Narendra Modi and key members of the BJP’s parliamentary board, to effect the party’s victory in the State.The BJP had received the support of three MLAs from Goa Forward Party and the Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party, and three Independent MLAs, which cleared the way for formation of a coalition government. The Congress had alleged that Constitutional provisions were violated by the BJP in the process.Mr. Gadkari said, “We did not do anything wrong. In the history of India, in the Lok Sabha and the legislative Assembly elections, those who have a majority are invited to form the government.”He added, “The real architect of Goa victory is Amit Shah. My mood was that we may not form a government, so we should give up. But he called me to his home and told me to go to Goa and that a government should be formed in any condition.”Congress a ‘rare species’Chief Minister Manohar Parrikar said the Congress would soon become a “rare species” on the canvas of Indian politics. He also said the BJP could come to power in Goa only because of the party’s Central leadership and the Congress leadership’s inability to act swiftly to form a government.“We have to think as to why we dropped from 21 to 13 [MLAs]. We were lucky that the party’s Central leadership was behind us. They gave us full support and to our luck, the person who the Congress had sent here [referring to Digvijaya Singh] was more interested in being a tourist,” Mr. Parrikar said.Mr. Parrikar also said the Congress would also lose the Karnataka Assembly polls scheduled next year.“Congress is like an extinct species. Like the wildlife species which a forest department tracks down when it is on its way to becoming extinct. It is there in Karnataka, but next year it will disappear from there too,” Mr. Parrikar said.Speaking about his government’s plans, Mr. Parrikar said, “One thing I learned in Delhi is to speak less and work more. This time [as a Chief Minister] I have decided to speak less. Whatever work we do, people will see for themselves.”
PANAJI: Taking a cue from the recent case in which a woman was found confined to a room by her family for years, Bailancho Saad, a women’s collective which played a role in her rescue, has demanded measures such as expediting the formation of a one-stop crisis centre for women and child victims of violence and abuse.The case of Sunita Verlekar, who was locked in a room with the stench of urine, without clothes or electricity, and infested with mosquitoes, has brought to the fore the violation of human rights of women, said Sabina Martins of Bailancho Saad at a press conference on Sunday. Ms. Martins said Ms. Verlekar, who studied up to Class XII (commerce), was married, but was sent back to her maternal home. Family members said she was confined because her mental condition was not stable. A medical examination found her psychologically and physically stable to be admitted to the State-run shelter home of Provedoria, Public Assistance Department. She received ₹2,000 per month from the Dayanand Social Security Scheme in her bank account, which was being withdrawn. This aspect is under investigation, Ms. Martins said. Bailancho Saad has said the government should periodically check the living conditions of people who are termed mentally unstable. Ms. Martins said there should be a mechanism to check if the money from welfare schemes reaches beneficiaries. Ms. Martins also urged the government to expedite setting up the one-stop crisis centre and the State Resource Centre for Women, funds for both of which have been provided by the Central government.
A 16-year-old girl was killed and her parents are missing after a landslip triggered by heavy rains buried their house in Uttarakhand’s Madrama village, an official said on Sunday.“The sudden landslip occurred at 9.30 pm yesterday [Saturday], killing Sunita on the spot. Her father Sher Singh and mother Radha Devi are missing after the incident,” Pithoragarh district disaster management officer R.S. Rana said.According to the sources, six cattle heads and 12 goats belonging to the family also perished in the incident.
More than 15 years after the attack on Akshardam temple in Gandhinagar, the Ahmedabad crime branch on Saturday arrested key accused Ajmeri Abdul Rashid, who had allegedly hatched the conspiracy and fled to Riyadh after the attack.Acquitted by SCRashid is one of the 28 absconding accused in the case and was arrested by the Crime Branch from the city airport as he was returning from Riyadh. His brother Adam Ajmeri was also a key accused. Rashid was awarded the death sentence by the trial court, but the Supreme Court acquitted him along with a few others.In 2014, the Supreme Court had acquitted all six accused who were convicted by the trial court for the terror attack in September 2002. Over 30 pilgrims were gunned down by two terrorists who were subsequently killed by the National Security Guards (NSG) commandos specially flown in from the national capital. Of those six accused, three were awarded the death sentence by the special trial court in 2006 and the Gujarat High Court had confirmed it in 2010.The Supreme Court had slammed the Gujarat police for shoddy investigation in the sensational terror attack case.Interestingly, Ajmeri’s arrest comes two days after Prime Minister Narendra Modi attended the Akshardham temple’s silver jubilee celebrations on Wednesday in Gandhinagar.
State Minister Brijesh Pathak on Tuesday accused the Opposition members of “conspiring the abduction of a schoolboy from Lucknow to defame the government”. “When the government was celebrating its completion of one year, a student of La Martiniere College was kidnapped by his driver Santosh Yadav yesterday (Monday). When the police surrounded a village to get the student released, it was found that it was a conspiracy of the Opposition parties to defame the government,” Mr. Pathak alleged in the Assembly.Oppn. seeks discussionReacting to his claim, the members of the Opposition parties said the allegations were serious and needed a discussion. Speaker Hriday Narain Dixit downplayed the matter saying, “the Opposition members cannot indulge in such activity”. Earlier, as soon as the House met for the day, Leader of the Opposition in the Assembly Ram Govind Chowdhury mentioned a number of murders in Allahabad on Monday and demanded immediate discussion on the issue saying the spate of killings had spread fear among the people living there.Parliamentary Affairs Minister Suresh Kumar Khanna said he had no details on the matter and promised to apprise the House of the issue after getting the requisite information.
An improvised explosive device (IED) blast killed two Border Security Force personnel at Koirengi on the northern edge of the Manipur capital, Imphal, on Wednesday afternoon.This is the second attack on paramilitary forces within 24 hours. An Assam Rifles constable was injured after suspected militants lobbed two hand grenades at troopers on Tuesday.The police in Imphal East district said the IED, presumably planted by insurgents, was detonated about 2pm outside the gate of the BSF outpost near Koirengi Airfield on the Imphal-Dimapur highway. The blast injured five people.”Two BSF men, both constables, succumbed to their injuries in the hospital. Two civilians, including a woman, are in critical condition,” K. Meghachandra, Imphal East district police chief, said. The two constables were identified as N.M. Meitei and Sanjay Tirkey.So far, none of at least six active Imphal valley-based insurgent groups have claimed responsibility for the two attacks in as many days.
Militant attacks saw no let up in Kashmir despite the Centre’s ceasefire in place for the past 17 days, with four grenade attacks leaving six persons injured on Friday. However, there is an 80% dip in security forces-civilian confrontation in the first two weeks, according to the police data.Compared to the incidents of law and order in the last two weeks of March and April, May witnessed significant dip of 80%. “South Kashmir would witness at least two confrontations per day prior to the halting of operations for the month of Ramzan. It has come down to one to two confrontations a week,” suggest the police data.Militants, who attacked the security forces with grenades more than eight times since May 16, injured four CRPF personnel, a policeman and a civilian in a grenade attack on Friday afternoon.“A joint party of the CRPF’s 140 Battalion and the police in Khanabal was attacked with a grenade, in which five sustained splinter injuries,” said the police.A CRPF vehicle and a Peoples Democratic Party MLA, Mushtaq Shah, were attacked with grenades in two separate incidents in Pulwama. A CRPF official said militants lobbed a grenade at a bunker at Hari Singh High Street. “The grenade exploded away from the target and no injuries were reported,” said the officials.2 protesters injuredTwo protesters were hit by a CRPF vehicle near the historic Jamia Masjid after Friday prayers.A police official said the two protesters were hit by a security forces vehicle when it came “under heavy stone pelting near the mosque.” “The condition of one of the injured is critical,” said hospital officials. Youth hurled stones at the security forces after Friday prayers.
Pro-reservation Maratha outfits on Friday launched the ‘Samwad Yatra’ in a bid to keep up the pressure on the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) government. Leaders of the Maratha Kranti Morcha, which is spearheading the stir, decided to go ahead with the yatra despite Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis’s assurance that the process of granting quota to the Maratha community would be completed by December 1. The leaders of the stir have demanded that the State government grant Marathas a quota under the Other Backward Classes (OBC) category, and not as separate ‘Maratha community’ which they fear will not pass muster in court.At the same time, MKM leaders assured that the Maratha community had no intention of snatching any benefits currently being availed by the other backward classes.“We want the Fadnavis government to include us in the OBC category and not push for our reservation as ‘Maratha community’ members. This can be achieved by expanding Maharashtra’s reservation limit which currently stands at 52%,” said Shantaram Kunjir, a Morcha coordinator from Pune heading the ‘Samwad Yatra’.Raghunath Chitre-Patil, another convener, said in 2014, the Congress-Nationalist Congress Party (NCP) government had approved a 16% Maratha quota which could not endure as it was reservation “on lines of a caste/community” and not along economic lines.“The Congress-NCP government announced a quota for the Maratha community just as the elections were round the corner. What was more damaging was that by not arguing for our inclusion within the OBC, the government could not put up a convincing argument in court on the backwardness of a majority of the Marathas,” Mr. Chitre-Patil said. Vinod Patil, a pro-quota activist who filed the petition in Bombay High Court, urged for extending the State’s reservation limit to ensure fairness and preserve inter-caste harmony. “The OBC category constitutes 32% of the total reservation. We are demanding a quota under the ‘OBC’ category, but not at the cost of eating into reservation of the other economically and socially backward communities. So the government must expand the reservation limit by including the Marathas under a separate OBC category. Say for instance, if the backwards classes under the OBC category are collectively labeled ‘A’, then the Marathas may be labeled as ‘A1’ under the same category,” opined Mr. Patil.The yatra commenced with a formal ceremony at the SSPMS ground in Pune, with hundreds of protestors demanding that the current government fulfil all demands of the Maratha community including fee waiver for Maratha students and death sentence to the perpetrators of the heinous 2016 Kopardi rape-murder — the trigger for the Maratha quota movement. The yatra moved to Saswad, 30 km from Pune, to join other pro-quota protestors who completed 100 days of agitation on Friday.Unlike the jarring bursts of violence and arson that marked the State-wide shutdown on August 9, the first phase of the new stir commenced on a peaceful note. The agitators however, reasserted their intention of converging on the Vidhan Bhavan in Mumbai on November 26 if the State government failed to break the reservation impasse.The Kopardi incident in 2016 had spurred a wave of nearly 60 ‘Muk Morchas’(silent rallies) for two years across the state, while buttressing the community’s claim for Maratha reservation and a curb on the misuse of the Atrocity Act.On Thursday, speaking at a function in Ahmednagar, Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis had reiterated his promise of resolving the Maratha quota issue within the next fortnight while urging the Maratha community to get ready for celebrations on December 1 instead of gearing up to launch fresh agitations against the State government.
The BJP has received a jolt in Rajasthan with the exit of its prominent Muslim face and former Dholpur MLA Abdul Sagir Khan, who launched a scathing attack on the party’s top leadership while resigning from its primary membership. About 30 office-bearers of BJP’s district unit also quit the party along with Mr. Khan.Mr. Khan, who joined the Congress at the party’s election meeting at Munshi Trilok Chand Mathur Stadium in Karauli on Monday, was elected to the State Assembly on the BJP ticket in 2008. He also served as chairperson of the Rajasthan Waqf Development Councilduring the previous BJP regime.Mr. Khan was considered close to former Chief Minister Vasundhara Raje, as he was politically active in the region where she was married in the erstwhile royal family. The Karauli-Dholpur Lok Sabha constituency, reserved for Scheduled Castes, comprises eight Assembly segments of the two districts, where BJP won only one seat, while Congress won six and BSP won one in the 2018 election.Gehlot welcomes KhanChief Minister Ashok Gehlot garlanded Mr. Khan while welcoming him to the Congress fold in the election meeting organised in support of the party’s candidate, Sanjay Kumar Jatav. Mr. Khan alleged that Prime Minister Narendra Modi and BJP president Amit Shah had “hijacked” the party and brought it to a predicament in which senior leaders were being ignored.The inordinate delay in the announcement of the candidate’s name for the Dausa Lok Sabha seat has also raised credibility issues about the BJP in the State. After much procrastination, the BJP fielded former Union Minister of State Jaskaur Meena on Sunday as a “compromise candidate” to resolve the tussle between senior leaders Kirori Lal Meena and Om Prakash Hudla.Mr. Meena was claiming ticket for his wife Golma Devi, while Mr. Hudla, who had defeated Ms. Golma Devi in Mahuwa in the 2013 State Assembly election, was seeking the party’s candidature for himself with the active support of Ms. Raje.
Not all species flee rising temperatures. As the mercury has inched upward across western North America over the last 40 years, many plant species have moved downhill, toward—not away from—warmer climates, according to the results of a new study. The finding adds to growing evidence that temperature isn’t the only factor influencing how Earth’s life will respond to climate change.“This is a very cool study and demonstrates what many of us have been saying—that we will get surprises,” writes Camille Parmesan, a climate change biologist at Plymouth University in the United Kingdom, in an e-mail to Science. She was not involved with the study.Like animals, plants require specific environmental conditions—such as the right temperature, moisture, and light levels—in order to thrive. Even small changes in environmental parameters can affect the reproduction and survival of a species. As global temperatures rise, both animal and plant populations are projected to gradually shift toward northern latitudes and upward to higher elevations where temperatures are cooler in order to stay within their ideal range of environmental conditions.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)In an effort to understand how plants may cope with changing climates, researchers at the University of Washington, Seattle, compiled geographic coordinate data for the locations of nearly 300 plant species within seven topographically distinct regions across western North America, ranging from the western Sierra Nevada mountain range in Nevada to the eastern Rocky Mountain Foothills of northern Canada, spanning the last 40 years. They then compared these findings with changing climate conditions, such as temperature, rain, and snowfall. The study is the most extensive of its kind to date.The results of the analysis were unexpected. More than 60% of plants shifted their distributions downward, toward warmer, lower elevations—despite significant climate warming across the regions under study, the team reported online on 24 July in Global Change Biology. Even more striking, all plants within a region—regardless of species—moved in the same direction.“Initially, we thought there was something wrong with our analysis—species distributions are expected to shift upward, not downward,” says team leader and plant ecologist Melanie Harsch. “But we redid the analysis and we got the same results.”A closer look revealed that the downhill movement of plants was likely driven by the changes in precipitation that accompanied warming temperatures. Those regions that experienced less rain and snow at high elevations were those with plants shifting toward lower elevations with wetter climates. “Less snow in winter translates into less water in summer, resulting in water-stressed plants and downward shifts,” Harsch says.Although plant populations are shifting downward toward greater water availability, they will also have to contend with an increasingly warming climate. “It’s a double-edged sword,” Harsch states, “as temperatures rise, water needs will also increase.”Although previous, smaller studies have also noted downhill movements in relation to water availability, others report uphill movements in relation to temperature, suggesting the direction of species movements is dependent on local environmental conditions as well as the types of species present. “These studies highlight the importance of understanding the complexities not only of future climate change but the climatological requirements of individual species,” says Anne Kelly, a plant ecologist at the Catalina Island Conservancy in Avalon, California, who was not involved in the work.Future climate changes are projected to intensify precipitation patterns in western North America, leading to more pronounced shifts in plant distributions and potential subsequent effects on the wildlife that depend on them for food and habitat. “How we decide where to allocate limited resources such as money and manpower to conserve species in the face of long-term global warming is a primary concern right now,” Harsch notes. “We can’t monitor all species everywhere, but, by identifying the factors responsible for environmental changes, we can begin to predict effects and prioritize conservation management choices.”
As many as 140 Indian companies with operations in South Africa have invested more than USD 4 billion and created 18,000 direct jobs, according to a report released today.The CII-PwC report showcased the contribution of Indian companies beyond foreign direct investment (FDI) in South Africa, including key CSR and skill development initiatives. Read it at Economic Times Related Items
It sounds simple. For nearly a decade, the venture capitalist Vinod Khosla has been fighting in court to keep the public off a piece of beach that abuts his property on the Pacific coast. What could be more familiar than another case of rich Californian versus the oceangoing citizenry?Read it at Related Items
Prime Minister Narendra Modi and President Donald Trump discussed how to “increase” cooperation in Afghanistan in a phone call Monday in the backdrop of reports the United States was planning to drawdown its forces there and that it wanted India and other regional players to play a large role militarily.Read it at Hindustan Times Related Items
India demands the equivalent of two Indias to sustain its consumption and waste needs.India’s Ecological Footprint – the amount of productive land and sea area required to produce the resources it consumes and absorb its waste – has doubled since 1961, according to the Global Footprint Network. India’s biocapacity footprint is exceeded only by the United States and China.However, India’s per capita Ecological Footprint, of 0.8 global hectares, is smaller than most countries and almost a third of the world average of 2.2 global hectares. In fact, even though India’s GDP has tripled since 1961, its per capita footprint fell by 12 percent. Related Items
The rise of China and India on the global economic stage in recent years has been nothing short of remarkable. Recent revisions to the original BRIC economies (Brazil, Russia, India and China) report from Goldman Sachs indicate that both countries will likely reach the ranks of the largest economies in the world faster than originally predicted. In fact, China has already arrived, edging past Japan in the second quarter of this year in terms of GDP to become the second-largest economy, although Japan was still bigger for the first half as a whole. Of course, much could go wrong in the years ahead, and each country faces daunting challenges. Yet, the economic trajectories of both countries seem clearly upward. Indeed, in the recent dramatic downturn that hit most developed countries, China and India continued to grow at respectable rates.The two countries have some similarities, of course, but their histories, cultures, demographics, and economies are, in fact, quite different. We wondered, then, just how those differences might play out and affect the emergence of China and India on the global economic and cultural scene. We think a useful place to start is by studying how Indians and Chinese have fared in rising to senior levels in leading multinational corporations. We believe this could hold some important clues to how companies from these two countries may globalize in the future.We gathered data from the top 50 firms of the Global 500 listed by Fortune magazine for 2009. We excluded Chinese (Sinopec, China National Petroleum, and State Grid) and Indian (ArcelorMittal) companies from the list, since they would quite naturally have many Chinese and Indian senior executives, and our focus is more on foreign multinationals. This left us with 46 firms. By reading their annual reports, corporate governance reports, and other leadership information disclosed on company Web sites, we compiled full lists of “executive committee/senior management” and “board members/board of management” for each firm. We examined the profiles of each person on these lists to determine the number of Chinese and Indians in the group. The results: out of a total of 788 C-suite executives, there were 2 mainland Chinese, 2 North American Chinese, and 13 Indians. Of the 590 board members, 4 were Chinese and 6 were Indian.While the numbers for both countries are still small in percentage terms, it appears that Indians are more frequently represented at senior levels in multinational firms than Chinese.We asked why this might be the case, and we have developed some plausible arguments to account for the imbalance. In all, we have identified five key differences that may have a bearing on the global roles that China and India may play in the years ahead.English ProficiencyOne obvious difference relates to English language ability, since that is the language of global business. Until recently, relatively few Chinese spoke English, and business in China is largely conducted in Chinese, although both these factors are changing fast. In contrast, the dominant language of Indian business is English, and the prevalence of English speakers is often cited as one of India’s distinctive competencies for international business. This has been amply demonstrated in the swift growth of Indian firms in software services and in business process outsourcing in recent years. But this pattern is changing. While it is true that India has a longer history than China of the widespread English medium education, the level of English spoken by many graduates in China today is excellent, even for those who have never left the country or worked with non-Chinese. Chinese parents often sacrifice one salary to afford bilingual kindergarten and schools for their child. English language classes for adults in China have spawned such corporate success stories as the New Oriental Education & Technology Group Inc. and the Wall Street Institute School of English.Management EducationA second difference is India’s longer history of institutions for higher education in management. India is home to the elite Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs), which are now well known internationally. Indeed, IIM Ahmedabad was developed through a collaboration with Harvard Business School during the 1960’s, and IIM Calcutta commenced in the 1950s with help from the Sloan School of Management at MIT. Consequently, India has been producing professionally trained managers for more than 50 years.In comparison, while leading Chinese business schools like Qinghua University’s School of Economics and Management, Guanghua School of Management at Beijing University, and Antai School of Management at Shanghai Jiao Tong University, to name a few, have long and distinguished histories dating back more than 100 years in some cases, China began establishing modern management education only in the late 1980’s. That was when the State University of New York at Buffalo started a joint venture program with Dalian and the European Union entered a joint venture with the Chinese to establish CEMI (the China Europe Management Institute), which then moved to Shanghai and went on to become CEIBS (China Europe International Business School), one of Asia’s leading business schools.During the 1990s, many Chinese universities also established business schools, most with one or more Western partners. The Party School is also an important institution for management and administrative development but is still ideologically and politically based.So we see a clear difference in the histories of management education: more than 50 years compared with about 20 years. One reflection of that difference may be seen in the leadership of major global business schools outside China and India. Two Indians are deans at such institutions — Nitin Nohria is the new dean at Harvard Business School and Sushil Kumar was recently named to lead Chicago Booth — and a third, Dipak Jain, is headed to lead INSEAD after several years as Dean of Kellogg Graduate School of Management at Northwestern University. By contrast, there are no Chinese in similar positions at the very top business schools.Political and Economic Differences Thirdly, the lag in the management education timeline may also reflect the differing political-economic realities of China and India. After 1947, the leaders of newly independent India chose a mixed economy as the model for development. While state-controlled firms were ceded certain sectors of the economy, about half the economy was still in the private sector, with profit-driven companies competing in the marketplace. This created demand for the management graduates from the newly formed IIMs, and fostered the spread of management education in India. Management as a favored career choice for young people began gathering steam in the 1970s and has been growing ever since.By way of contrast, in 1949, at the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, the country had been laid waste by invasion and civil war. The Communist Party came to power with an egalitarian ideology and began to rebuild Chinese society. From 1958 to 1962, the unintended effects of Mao’s “Great Leap Forward” forced untrained peasants to lead the country into, as it turned out, a rather unsuccessful new industrial and agricultural revolution that resulted in lowered productivity and even famine in many areas. This period was followed by the Cultural Revolution, which interrupted schooling for a decade from 1966 to 1976 while denouncing business and property ownership. In these decades, being a manager or holding a management degree was clearly not an advantage.Cultural DiversityFourthly, we believe culture also played a key role as the social context in each country influenced management development. Indian culture is rather diverse, with a multitude of different linguistic, ethnic, regional, religious, even racial groups that have had to learn to cooperate and coexist in India’s noisy democracy. Historically, India received waves of conquerors and colonists who were over time assimilated into Indian society, and there is a long tradition of Indians studying and working overseas. While Indian society can be elitist with influential in-group networks, the workplace, like the society, has become quite inclusive in recent years. In the last decade, the growing services sector, which needed more and more young employees, has served as another leveler across traditional social barriers.By comparison and rather differently, the Chinese have a relatively more homogeneous, less diverse culture. The country’s more monolithic culture, growing from a predominantly Han-Chinese tradition and a deep tendency toward strong hierarchies, does not encourage thinking in new ways or including outsiders. This makes it more difficult to understand new markets, to think creatively, or to accept people who may appear to be eccentrics.The Chinese have a strong in-group focus, meaning that they prefer to work, communicate, and share information with people they know and trust. Outsiders — who can include people from another department or division even within the same organization, much less from outside the organization or country — can establish trust only over time. These cultural patterns slow down the appreciation of different ways of thinking and being and thereby also slow the kind of cross-fertilization and cooperation that multinationals tap to boost innovationDemographicsFinally, perhaps plain differences in demographics can explain the lower frequency of senior Chinese executives at multinational firms. Given the dearth of Chinese managers who can also speak English, any multinational lucky enough to have them likely wants to keep them in China. A much-quoted McKinsey report from 2005, “Addressing China’s Looming Talent Shortage,” claimed that China was short some 750,000 managers. The report estimated that China and India have a similar number of college and advanced-degree graduates but in India, 25% of engineering graduates have the level of training that qualifies them to work for an MNC, whereas the number in China was just 10%.India has plenty of experienced and high-potential managers who can work in English.Companies send them out easily — even to China (Dinesh Paliwal, who was head of ABB’s pulp and papers division in China in the late 1990’s, is one such example). And Indian companies like Hindustan Unilever have long served as an important source of global talent for their parent firm.The path to the C-suite today emphasizes international experience. Indians have been studying and working abroad prior to independence. That has gathered pace in the last two or three decades. The Chinese were constrained from going abroad from 1949 until the late 1970s and even then Chinese students going overseas were only a trickle until the 1990s. Capable Chinese managers were likely kept in China where they were badly needed and so were done out of many of the international opportunities needed for advancement in global careers. Fluid SituationSummarizing, we have identified several plausible explanations for the larger number of Indians compared with Chinese in senior positions at leading global corporations. While we believe these explanations are consistent with the data, we are unable to assert which factors are more influential than others. It is important to remember, however, that the picture is changing, perhaps rapidly. The longer-term prognosis for how Chinese and Indian firms will globalize will likely depend on which underlying factors have more influence. If the ability to embrace diversity is critical, for instance, then that may shift only slowly since it is based in deep cultural patterns of trusting sameness in China. In this case, India will hold the better cards for some time to come.If, however, language ability is central, then the pattern will change sooner because the advantage of India’s comfort with the English language is being overtaken fast by the Chinese. China today has more people learning English than the total number of English speakers in the United States. Similarly, with the issue of management education, China is catching up fast, with large numbers having already graduated from MBA and EMBA programs.China and India are both on successful economic trajectories. The data seem to suggest that as of last year, Indians may have had more success in navigating careers at leading global firms. It is possible that this is a pattern that might last for some more time. Yet, depending on the relative influence of specific factors that underlie this pattern, it may not take long for the Chinese to catch up. Related Items
As the State government gets ready for the last session of the current Assembly, the news of a possible Cabinet expansion is making the rounds again. The monsoon session begins on June 17. While details of a meeting between senior BJP leader and Revenue and Relief Minister Chandrakant Patil with Shiv Sena chief Uddhav Thackeray on Monday were not made public, sources said it was to discuss the possibility of expansion.State Finance Minister Sudhir Mungantiwar, in an interaction with mediapersons, said, “Yes, there is a possibility of Cabinet expansion. The ultimate right to decide rests with Chief Minister. More ministers would mean better governance. Therefore, there is a possibility that cabinet expansion may take place,” he said.Political circles are also discussing the possibility of former Leader of Opposition and senior Congress leader Radhakrishna Vikhe-Patil joining BJP and getting a cabinet berth. However neither BJP sources nor Mr. Vikhe-Patil’s aides have confirmed this yet.
Community kitchens that could feed lakhs of pilgrims on the way to cave shrine of Amarnath in South Kashmir Himalayas would be monitored by CCTVs, officials said on Friday. The Amarnath Yatra would commence on July 1 and continue for 46 days till August 15. This time CCTVs would be installed at each langar (community kitchen) site along the Pathankote-Jammu-Baltal Highway as a security measure, they said. Officials said 105 langars for pilgrims will be available at 17 places in Jammu, 8 in Kathua, 10 in Udhampur and 28 in district Ramban. Halting points have been finalised in all the Highway districts including 6 in Kathua, 17 in Jammu, 26 in Udhampur and 22 in district Ramban from Kathua district (entry point in J&K) to Baltal in Ganderbal district. Mobile toilets have been made available at 17 different locations. Advisor to Governor K. Vijay Kumar on Thursday chaired a high-level meeting to review arrangements being put in place for the smooth conduct of the Amarnath Yatra. Divisional Commissioner Sanjeev Verma gave a detailed presentation about arrangements being made for the smooth conduct of annual yatra to the cave shrine in South Kashmir. Facilities for the spot registration of pilgrims have been made at Jammu, Sangam, Sarasvati Dham, Vashnavi Dham, Ram Mandir, Purani Mandi. Adequate number of buses have been arranged to ferry pilgrims from Jammu to Pahalgam and Baltal, officials added. Similarly, arrangements for accommodation and shelter sheds would be available for pilgrims at all districts en route, officials said. The Advisor also reviewed the security arrangements and sought details from officers concerned about the scale of deployments along the twin routes of Phalgam and Baltal. The IG Traffic apprised the Advisor of the traffic management plan and condition of Highway from Udhampur to Banihal. Vulnerable points have been identified and executing agencies are at work.
At least two people were killed and three others severely injured when bombs were hurled at them late Monday night in the Kankinara area of West Bengal’s North 24 Parganas district, police said on Tuesday.The Trinamool Congress (TMC) claimed that the victims were supporters of the party and were targeted by miscreants hired by the BJP, a charge denied by the saffron party. The two deceased were identified as Mohammed Mukhtar and Mohammed Halim. Three people have been arrested for their alleged involvement in the incident, the police said. State minister and TMC’s district president Jyotipriya Mallick alleged that the victims were targeted by miscreants hired by the BJP because they had voted for the ruling party in the state in the recently-concluded Lok Sabha elections. BJP MP of Barrackpore Lok Sabha constituency Arjun Singh, however, rubbished the allegations, saying that the incident was the result of a family feud and has no connection with politics. The incident took place on the intervening night of Monday and Tuesday at around 1 am in Baruipara, which is part of the Barrackpore Lok Sabha constituency, when family members of Mr. Mukhtar were sitting outside, according to officials.“Halim died on the spot, while Mukhtar succumbed at the hospital. A critically injured Mukhtar’s wife is undergoing treatment at a nearby hospital along with two others,” a senior police officer said. Following the incident, a huge number of policemen, along with RAF personnel, have been deployed in the area. When contacted, state Assistant Director General (Law and Order) Gyanwant Singh said that he was collecting detailed information about the incident. Meanwhile, the BJP claimed on Monday night that a supporter of the party was strangled to death allegedly for chanting “Jai Shri Ram” by workers of the TMC in the state’s Howrah district. Though police confirmed the death of 43-year-old Samatul Doloi, whose body was found in a field in Sarpota village under the Amta Police Station limits, they did not give away the cause of the death.
Centre has declared the entire State of Nagaland a “disturbed area” for six more months under the controversial AFSPA, which empowers security forces to conduct operations anywhere and arrest anyone without prior notice.In a notification, the Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) said the Central government is of the opinion that the area comprising the whole State of Nagaland is in such a “disturbed and dangerous condition” that the use of armed forces in aid of the civil power is necessary.“Now, therefore, in exercise of the powers conferred by Section 3 of the Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act, 1958 (No. 28 of 1958), the Central government hereby declares that whole of the said State to be a ‘disturbed area’ for a period of six months with effect from June 30, 2019 for the purpose of that Act,” the notification said.The Armed Forces (Special Powers) Act has been in force in Nagaland for several decades. It was not withdrawn even after a framework agreement was signed on August 3, 2015 by Naga insurgent group NSCN-IM general secretary Thuingaleng Muivah and government interlocutor R.N. Ravi in the presence of Prime Minister Narendra Modi.The framework agreement came after more than 80 rounds of negotiations over 18 years. The first breakthrough came in 1997 when the ceasefire agreement was sealed after decades of insurgency.