Aim To produce a robust, comprehensive global biome reconstruction for the Middle Pliocene (c. 3.6–2.6 Ma), which is based on an internally consistent palaeobotanical data set and a state-of-the-art coupled climate–vegetation model. The reconstruction gives a more rigorous picture of climate and environmental change during the Middle Pliocene and provides a new boundary condition for future general circulation model (GCM) studies. Location Global. Methods Compilation of Middle Pliocene vegetation data from 202 marine and terrestrial sites into the comprehensive GIS data base TEVIS (Tertiary Environmental Information System). Translation into an internally consistent classification scheme using 28 biomes. Comparison and synthesis of vegetation reconstruction from palaeodata with the outputs of the mechanistically based BIOME4 model forced by climatology derived from the HadAM3 GCM. Results The model results compare favourably with available palaeodata and highlight the importance of employing vegetation–climate feedbacks and the anomaly method in biome models. Both the vegetation reconstruction from palaeobotanical data and the BIOME4 prediction indicate a general warmer and moister climate for the Middle Pliocene. Evergreen taiga as well as temperate forest and grassland shifted northward, resulting in much reduced tundra vegetation. Warm-temperate forests (with subtropical taxa) spread in mid and eastern Europe and tropical savannas and woodland expanded in Africa and Australia at the expense of deserts. Discrepancies which occurred between data reconstruction and model simulation can be related to: (1) poor spatial model resolution and data coverage; (2) uncertainties in delimiting biomes using climate parameters; or (3) uncertainties in model physics and/or geological boundary conditions. Main conclusions The new global biome reconstruction combines vegetation reconstruction from palaeobotanical proxies with model simulations. It is an important contribution to the further understanding of climate and vegetation changes during the Middle Pliocene warm interval and will enhance our knowledge about how vegetation may change in the future.
Bollin Dale Engineering is supplying a complete line for production of Jaffa Cake style biscuits to a customer in Iran.The 1.2-metre wide line, valued at £1.3m, is on its way to the factory and will be installed and commissioned by Macclesfield-based Bollin Dale. It will have an output of 750kg per hour – 18 cakes across 60 rows a minute. The line consists of a batter preparation and aeration system, batter depositing unit, travelling oven and cooling system, jam preparation/depositing system and forced cooling and chocolate enrobing stations. All parts except the oven and enrober have been designed and manufactured in-house.Until recently, Bollin Dale was the principal machining shop for Asser Oakes. It now produces and markets its own equipment.
Greggs is continuing its partnership with the Children in Need appeal by launching a range of Pudsey Bear-themed cupcakes and donuts this November.The high street baker will also be donating 30p from every meal deal and 15p from sales of sweet snacks to the charity. It will sell official merchandise in-store alongside its baked products, such as wristbands, Pudsey ears and trolley keyrings.Greggs has supported the charity since 2006 and has raised £2.2m to date, accumulating £904,850 for last year’s appeal.