Dismissal of pregnant worker seen as sex bias

first_imgRelated posts:No related photos. Previous Article Next Article Dismissal of pregnant worker seen as sex biasOn 6 Nov 2001 in Personnel Today A recent European ruling found in favour of a fixed-term worker dismissed onthe grounds of her pregnancyIn Tele-Danmark A/S v Handels-og Kontorfunktionaerenes Forbund I Danmark actingon behalf of Marianne Brandt-Nielsen (4 October 2001) the European Court ofJustice considered whether an employer who dismissed a woman employed on afixed-term basis for pregnancy-related reasons is in breach of the EqualTreatment directive. In June 1995 Brandt-Nielson, the complainant, was recruited by Tele-Danmarkfor six months from 1 July 1995 to work in its mobile phones customer servicesdepartment. At her interview it was agreed that the complainant would have toundergo a training course for the first two months of her contract. In August 1995 Brandt-Nielson told her employer she was pregnant andexpected to give birth in early November. It was accepted that she knew she waspregnant when she was offered the job. Shortly afterwards, on 23 August, she was dismissed with effect from 30September on the grounds that she had not told her employer she was pregnantwhen she was recruited. Under the collective agreement which was relevant to the complainant’semployment she was entitled to paid maternity leave starting eight weeks beforethe expected birth date. That period started on 11 September while she wasstill working for her employer. On 4 March 1996, Brandt-Nielson’s trade union brought proceedings in thelocal court claiming that the complainant’s dismissal was in breach of both thenational law on equal treatment and Article 5(1) of the Equal Treatmentdirective. This provides that the principle of equal treatment shall apply to”working conditions, including the conditions governing dismissal”. The local court rejected the claim on the ground that the complainant hadfailed to state that she was pregnant at her interview. That decision wasoverturned on appeal, however, on the grounds that it was not disputed that thecomplainant was pregnant at the time and that her dismissal was linked topregnancy. On further appeal the European Court was asked whether Article 5(1) of theEqual Treatment directive and Article 10 of the Pregnant Workers directiveapplied where: – The woman was recruited as a temporary worker for a limited period – When she entered into the contract of employment, the worker knew she waspregnant but did not inform the employer – The worker’s pregnancy meant that she was unable to work for a significantpart of her period of employment. ECJ ruling The ECJ ruled that both Article 5(1) of the Equal Treatment directive andArticle 16(1) of the Pregnant Workers directive should be interpreted as precludinga worker from being dismissed on grounds of pregnancy even where she isrecruited for a fixed period and failed to inform her employer she was pregnantat the time of her recruitment. It was also of no relevance that she was unableto work for a substantial part of the contract. In Webb v EMO Air Cargo, 1995, the House of Lords left open the possibilitythat the dismissal of a fixed-term worker might not be in breach of the EqualTreatment directive or the Sex Discrimination Act. The ECJ’s answer in theBrandt-Nielson case makes it clear that this is not so. Key points – The dismissal of an employee who is employed under a fixed-term contracton the grounds that she is pregnant, or for a pregnancy-related illness, is inbreach of both the Equal Treatment directive and the Pregnant Workersdirective. – The fact that the contract is for a fixed term and that the absencethrough pregnancy is likely to be for a substantial period of the fixed termmakes no difference. – The Sex Discrimination Act is likely to be interpreted in such a manner asto give effect to European law. By Anthony Korn  a barrister at199 Strand Chambers Comments are closed. last_img read more

Comment on Why great recruiters make dud managers by Lisa

first_imgComment on Why great recruiters make dud managers by LisaShared from lisa on 18 Oct 2015 in Personnel Today Previous Article Next Article Great billers have had good support and training as billers…being ambitious, driven on the whole intelligent individuals, give them the same training and they’ll do well as a manager. Problem is lack of support, training and guidance in a management role aswell as remuneration.Read full article Related posts:No related photos. Comments are closed.last_img read more

Awards honour industry’s best auctioneers

first_imgNAVA has presented Katie Semmens (right) of land and property firm Clive Emson with its prestigious Auctioneer of the Year award – the top honour at the body’s annual awards ceremony.Semmens impressed the judges with “her outstanding professional auctioneering skills, including handling difficult bidding situations whilst maintaining genuine customer empathy, and adding a good touch of humour to help lift the bid levels”, according to NAVA.The President’s Award was presented to Steven Denley-Hill, who has dedicated much of his professional life to NAVA and held several influential roles including president, chairman and CEO.The Community Award was presented to Symonds & Sampson as the company that best demonstrated their commitment to corporate and social responsibilities within the community.This year’s Property Auction House of the Year award was handed to Network Auctions “for demonstrating outstanding customer service, robust business strategy, effective marketing, profession involvement and best practice.”Phil Arnold, President, NAVA, said, “This event is an industry institute. Now in its fifth year, it’s a great way for us to show off and congratulate the great work conducted by valuers and auctioneers across the whole business.“We were extremely impressed with this year’s entrants – the standard was very high,” he added.Meanwhile, Auction House ran its very first property auction in Nottingham last week in association with HEB Chartered Surveyors.The sale, which was held at the Doubletree by Hilton Hotel in Nottingham, saw 11 of the 12 lots offered under the hammer sold, collectively raising almost £1 million.The company’s decision to join forces with Matt Hilton and his colleagues at HEB in Nottingham increases Auction House’s network to 40 auction rooms.Auction House’s Founding Director Roger Lake (right) said, “It’s good to add a Nottingham sale room to our network and to have teamed up with Matt Hilton and his colleagues at HEB. This new addition to our ranks will strengthen our presence in East Midlands, and make the brand active in a territory where sale by auction is already popular.”Auction House became the first property auction company in the country to pass the 2,000 lots sold milestone for 2015 in September – and did so two weeks earlier than last year.Auctioneer Matt Hilton (left) said, “We’ve watched the growth of Auction House in recent years and have been impressed by their core philosophy of selling local properties close to home – something which is good for our local, regional and national clients. We’re delighted to have joined the brand and look forward to increasing our number of entries, now that we can provide a whole of market service.”industry’s best auctioneer NAVA Auctioneer of the Year award Awards October 14, 2015The NegotiatorWhat’s your opinion? Cancel replyYou must be logged in to post a comment.Please note: This is a site for professional discussion. Comments will carry your full name and company.This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.Related articles BREAKING: Evictions paperwork must now include ‘breathing space’ scheme details30th April 2021 City dwellers most satisfied with where they live30th April 2021 Hong Kong remains most expensive city to rent with London in 4th place30th April 2021 Home » News » Associations & Bodies » Awards honour industry’s best auctioneers previous nextAssociations & BodiesAwards honour industry’s best auctioneersAnd the winners are…The Negotiator14th October 20150674 Viewslast_img read more

Lecturer – English – (ADJ000153)

first_imgThe Department of English at the University of Houston is hiringtemporary, part-time lecturers. Instructional content areas ofparticular need are: Freshman Composition I and FreshmanComposition II. Successful applicants may also be asked to instructundergraduate courses in other areas such as literature. Thesecourses are taught in multiple formats such as face-to-faceinstruction, hybrid, and online. These positions are non-tenuretrack positions and are not benefits eligible.To apply, candidates must provide a letter of interest, a currentcurriculum vitae, unofficial transcripts and three letters ofrecommendation. Applicants are also welcome to provide a teachingphilosophy/statement and a writing sample.The University of Houston, with one of the most diverse studentbodies in the nation, seeks to recruit and retain a diversecommunity of scholars.The University of Houston is an Equal Opportunity/AffirmativeAction institution. Minorities, women, veterans, and persons withdisabilities are encouraged to apply.Qualifications :Masters or doctorate in English, or related field, with at least ayear of teaching at the college level.Notes to Applicant: Official transcripts are required for afaculty appointment and will be requested upon selection of finalcandidate. All positions at the University of Houston are securitysensitive and will require a criminal history check.last_img read more

Special Weather Statement: Coastal Flood Watch

first_imgThe National Weather Service issued a Coastal Flood Watch in effect for Ocean City from Thursday morning through Thursday afternoon.The NWS does not typically issue this type of notification so many days in advance, but the Flood Watch predicts water levels in the high range of moderate flooding and approaching major flooding.The National Weather Service predicts a water level of 7 feet on the mean low water (MLW) scale for a high tide at 9:55 a.m. Thursday (Dec. 17) on the bay side of Ocean City. That level would represent the highest Ocean City tide in more than two years. Visit www.ocnj.us/octides to compare that prediction to recent and historic tide levels.The latest forecast calls for a major storm to bring heavy rain and sustained northeast winds of 30 to 40 mph, gusting to 58 mph, in addition to a higher-than-normal astronomical tide. These factors would contribute to flooding conditions.Street flooding is likely prior to high tide and may last for several hours. Vehicles should be moved from areas that typically experience tidal flooding. The roads closer to the beach including Central and Wesley avenues are typically at higher elevation.Parking will be available at the Trinity United Methodist Church at 20 North Shore Road in Marmora (please read letter from Trinity if you take advantage of this service).Please monitor the forecasts and check back here for updates as the predictions may change for better or worse as this weather system approaches.For your safety and the protection of your vehicle and neighboring properties, never attempt to drive through flood waters, and do not drive around barricades. City crews are out clearing storm drains in advance of the storm, but storm preparation can include making sure inlets near your home are clear of debris.For Police and Fire Department emergencies, call 911. For non-emergencies, call 609-399-9111.last_img read more

Local Red Cross elects officers for next year,

first_imgEight new members and two incumbent members won election today to the board of the Central Vermont-New Hampshire Valley chapter of the American Red Cross. Officers for fiscalyear 2002-2003 were also elected during the Red Cross chapter’s 84th annual meeting at the Summit Lodge in Killington, Vt.A total of nine persons were elected to three-year terms as members of the chapter board of directors. Thomas J. Hurcomb of Middletown Springs, Vt., and Ben Fratkin of Randolph were re-elected to second three-year terms onthe board. Elected to their first three-year terms on the chapter board were:Dr. Richard C. Baker, a family practitioner at Rutland Primary Care;Stephen R. Burzon, a marketing consultant from Danby Four Corners; Cristina S. Hammond, MPH, of Hanover, a research associate at the Dartmouth Medical School and an active member of the chapter’s UpperValley disaster action team; Tim Maney, a vice president and commercial loan officer for Chittenden Bank in White River Junction; Frederick Peyron of Newport, N.H., a former 10-year member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives; Sandra C. Singer, MPH, a member of the Neighborhood Health Clinic board and the Free Care Committee in Randolph; and Philip H. White, an attorney with Wilson & White in Montpelier.Elected to a one-year term on the board was Laura L. Myerholtz, administrative assistant in the Office of Career Studies at the Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth. A resident of White River Junction, Myerholtz has been a member of Red Cross disaster action teams for thelocal Red Cross chapter and the chapter in Cleveland, Ohio.Four members are leaving the chapter board after completing their second three-year terms. Larry Gold of Mendon; James Horan and Norris Knosher, both of Montpelier; and Robert O’Donnell of Woodstock received certificates of appreciation for their six years of service. Chapter directors are limited to six consecutive years on the board.O’Donnell will continue to be active with the chapter after winning election as the chapter’s secretary. Also election of chapter officers for2002-2003 included re-election of Thomas Hurcomb as chapter chair and of Thomas Byrne III of Etna, N.H., as treasurer. John Russell of Montpelier was elected as the chapter’s vice chair.The Central Vermont-New Hampshire Valley Red Cross chapter serves 225,000 persons in about 90 communities across central Vermont and 12 communities in New Hampshire. With the donation of time and resources by hundreds of volunteers working in partnership with professional staff, the local chapter provides Disaster Relief, Blood Services, Health & Safety Services, Armed Forces Emergency Services, and more. The Red Cross is nota government agency and depends on the generosity of the American people for the financial support necessary to provide the many services that areneeded by people in our area.last_img read more

Vermont CEOs forecast improvements for first six months of 2011

first_img3. How do you expect your company’s employment to change in the next six months? 1. How do you expect your company’s sales to change in the next six months? EmploymentINCREASENO CHANGEDECREASEQ1 200457%38%4%Q2 200450%48%2%Q3 200459%37%4%Q4 200458%39%3%Q1 200555%38%7%Q2 200549%42%9%Q3 200549%44%7%Q4 200560%35%5%Q1 200654%39%7%Q2 200650%45%5%Q3 200643%49%7%Q4 200653%41%5%Q3 200840%42%18%Q4 200825%35%40%Q1 200923%37%40%Q2 200921%50%29%Q3 200934%46%20%Q1 201040%52%8%Q2 201046%45%9%Q3 2010355213Q4 2010511138% Change from Q3/10 to Q4/1016%-41%25%Totals may not equal 100 due to rounding. The Roundtable is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization of 120 CEOs of Vermont’s top private and nonprofit employers, representing geographic diversity and all major sectors of the Vermont economy, with an aggregate economic impact of $135 billion and employing 15 percent of the state’s workforce. The Roundtable is committed to sustaining a sound economy and preserving Vermont’s unique quality of life by studying and making recommendations on statewide public policy issues.. 2. How do you expect your company’s capital spending to change in the next six months? CapitalINCREASENO CHANGEDECREASEQ1 200462%30%8%Q2 200443%41%15%Q3 200451%42%7%Q4 200445%46%9%Q1 200555%37%8%Q2 200549%43%8%Q3 200557%38%5%Q4 200550%35%15%Q1 200645%45%10%Q2 200653%40%7%Q3 200640%50%10%Q4 200656%39%5%Q3 200838%42%20%Q4 200817 %43%40%Q1 200912%38%50%Q2 200917%51%32%Q3 200931%46%23%Q1 201050%42%8%Q2 201051%38%11%Q3 2010374815Q4 2010491734% Change from Q3/10 to Q4/1012%-31%19%Totals may not equal 100 due to rounding.center_img -###- The chief executives of Vermont’s leading businesses appear increasingly poised for improvement in all three of the survey’s metrics: sales prospects, capital expenditures and employment levels for the winter and spring months of 2011, when compared against the previous survey period. The mood was assessed near the end of calendar year 2010 and released today by Vermont Business Roundtable Chair Bill Stritzler and President Lisa Ventriss.According to Roundtable President, Lisa Ventriss, ‘Overall, these data present an important upswing in economic outlooks among the state’s leading CEOs and we’d have to go back to our pre-recessionary surveys of 2006 to find similar percentages for growth expectations. Specifically, our members’ strong sales forecasts (71 percent of respondents expect an increase compared to 59 percent in the previous survey); capital expenditures (49 percent compared to 37 percent, previously) and employment (51 percent compared to 35 percent, previously) tell a positive story,’ Ventriss said.Chair Stritzler, the Managing Director of the Jeffersonville-based Smugglers’ Notch Resort, says the results of the CEO survey reflect encouraging attitudes across all sectors of the marketplace. ‘These data tell us that business leaders are prepared to again invest not only in physical infrastructure but, more importantly, in their workforces. This is very good news for Vermont and Vermonters. But at the same time, we must remember that these changes are fragile; there are still areas of concern in the numbers.’‘In sum, we are encouraged by these results and believe that the economy continues to strengthen.’ said Stritzler.The Roundtable’s CEO Economic Outlook Survey provides a forward-looking view of the economic assumptions and attitudes of chief executive officers for 120 of the state’s top employers that have an aggregate economic impact of $135 billion and employ 15 percent of the state’s workforce. Vermont’s agriculture, construction, education, health services, finance, real estate, insurance, hospitality/leisure, manufacturing, information, utilities, professional/business services, wholesale trade, and non-profit industries are represented. The response rate for this quarter was 65 percent. Historically, rates have varied from 35 to 73 percent.   SalesINCREASENO CHANGEDECREASEQ1 200483%13%4%Q2 200480%15%4%Q3 200471%25%4%Q4 200477%22%1%Q1 200578%19%3%Q2 200575%23%2%Q3 200574%24%2%Q4 200572%24%4%Q1 200678%20%2%Q2 200678%22%0%Q3 200669%25%6%Q4 200673%23%4%Q3 200851%35%14%Q4 200827%46%27%Q1 200933%30%37%Q2 200941%31%28%Q3 200934%49%17%Q1 201063%19%18%Q2 201069%24%7%Q3 201059356Q4 201071623% change from Q3/10 to Q4/1012%-29%17%Totals may not equal 100 due to rounding. Source: Vermont Business Roundtable. 1.4.2011last_img read more

Resort Maps, Discovery Map form the world’s largest illustrated map publisher

first_imgDiscovery Map International, Inc.,Waitsfield, Vermont-based Resort Maps, creator of more than 100 hand-drawn travel maps across the United States, Canada, England, Costa Rica and Puerto Rico, recently announced its acquisition of Discovery Map International of La Conner, Washington. The acquisition unites two of the leading publishers of illustrated maps in the United States. Both companies have published colorful hand-drawn free visitor maps of popular destinations for more than 25 years. ‘We are thrilled to be coming together with Discovery Map for a number of reasons,’ said Peter Hans, president of Resort Maps Franchise, Inc. ‘Beyond being able to work with an innovator like Victoria Starr, her talented staff and map owners, it gives our company a coast-to-coast presence and opens the door to a number of expansion possibilities. We focus on the user experience; so having our maps available across the country will give travelers a consistent resource to find great places to eat, shop, stay and play.’Combined, the new company will boast 90 independent owners in 150 markets, in 33 states and four countries. Annual circulation will top 25 million maps in the new entity’s first year of operation. ‘Resort Maps is a top-flight company that shares our commitment to producing first-class, user-friendly maps,’ said Victoria Starr, owner of Discovery Map International. ‘This unification is going to produce some unbelievable maps, both in print and online, and soon lead to Discovery Maps being available via handheld devices.’ In addition to printed maps, Resort Maps has developed a mobile application for iPhone and iPad. The app is available for free at the App Store.In terms of day-to-day operations, the new company will maintain offices on both coasts, with headquarters in Waitsfield, Vermont and Discovery’s current office in La Conner, Washington.  The company will also maintain websites at discoverymap.com and resortmaps.com.  For more information on any of the 100+ Resort Maps destinations or if you interested in potentially owning a Resort Maps franchise, please visit www.resortmaps.com(link is external). Alternatively, you can call 802-496-6277.About Resort Maps®Headquartered in the Green Mountains of Vermont, Resort Maps® has been creating and publishing visitor maps in the northeastern U.S. since 1986. In 1993, Resort Maps® expanded its reach by creating a franchise model for distribution of its colorful, hand-drawn maps of resort towns and cities. With its recent acquisition of Discovery Map International, Resort Maps’ network has grown to 150 markets in 33 states and four countries (US, UK, Canada, and Costa Rica). More than 25 million Resort Maps will be printed and distributed in 2012.For more information on Resort Maps and/or the franchise opportunity, visit www.resortmaps.com(link is external) or call 802-496-6277.Resort Maps franchises serve cities and towns in California (Carmel, Monterey, San Diego), Colorado (Boulder, Breckenridge, Cherry Creek, Colorado Springs, Denver, Vail & Beaver Creek, Estes Park, Fort Collins, Glendale, Summit County), Delaware ( Rehoboth Beach), Florida (Boca Raton, Clearwater Beach and Gulf Beaches, Cocoa Beach, Daytona Beach, Delray Beach, Key West, Melbourne, New Smyrna Beach, St. Augustine), Georgia (Savannah/Tybee Island), Kentucky (Lexington) Maine (Bar Harbor/Acadia, Boothbay region, Camden-Rockland, Kennebunkport, Kittery, Mt. Desert Island, Portland, Wells, York-Ogunquit), Maryland (Annapolis, Eastern Shore, Ocean City,  Solomons Island, St. Mary’s County), Massachusetts (Berkshires, Brewster/Harwich/Dennis, Chatham-Orleans, Eastham-Wellfleet, Falmouth, Hyannis-Yarmouth, Martha’s Vineyard, Newburyport, Plymouth, Sturbridge, Worcester), Michigan (Northern Michigan/Petoskey/Harbor Springs; Traverse City), New Hampshire (Franconia/Notch Region, Hampton Beach, Hanover/Lebanon , Keene, Lakes Region, Mount Washington Valley, Portsmouth), New Jersey (Barnegat Bay, Cape May, Hoboken/Jersey City, Hunterdon, Lambertville , Long Beach Island, New Brunswick, Ocean Grove, Point Pleasant, Princeton, Sandy Hook), New York (The North Fork, Lake George , Lake Placid, Saratoga Springs, East Hampton), North Carolina (Asheville, Brunswick County, Chrystal Coast, Hendersonville, Outer Banks, Sandhills, Wilmington), Pennsylvania (Bucks County, Chestnut Hill, Delaware River Valley, Gettysburg, Lehigh Valley, The Main Line, Lancaster County), Rhode Island (Newport, Providence), South Carolina (Charleston, Hilton Head,), Tennessee (Gatlinburg, Pigeon Forge), Vermont (Addison County/Brandon, Barre/Montpelier, Burlington, Killington/Rutland, Mad River Valley, Manchester, Mount Snow, Okemo, Smugglers’ Notch, Stowe, Waterbury/Richmond, Woodstock/Quechee) and Virginia (Alexandria, Northern Neck & Middle Peninsula) ‘as well as towns and cities in Canada (Charlotte Coastal Region), England (Chicester, Lewes), Puerto Rico (San Juan, Vieques, Culebra) and Costa Rica (Escazu-Santa Ana).  New maps coming soon in North Lake Tahoe, CA; South Hampton, NY; Charlotte Harbor/Venice/Gulf Islands, FL; Orlando, FL; Tucson, AZ; South County and Block Island, RI and Georgetown, DC. Discovery Map®:Arizona (Flagstaff, Grand Canyon, Sedona), California (Carlsbad, Los Gatos, Saratoga), Colorado (Durango, Steamboat Springs), Florida (Amelia Island, Destin), Georgia (St. Mary’s), Idaho (Coeur d’Alene, McCall, Sandpoint, Sun Valley), Montana (Bozeman & Big Sky, Butte, Kalispell, Missoula, West Yellowstone, Whitefish), New Mexico (Santa Fe, Taos), North Carolina (Charlotte), Oregon (Bend), Virginia (Charlottesville, Lynchburg, Norfolk, Richmond, Virginia Beach), Washington (Anacortes, Bellingham, La Conner) Wisconsin (Door County).last_img read more

Rystad Energy: 2020 will be a record year for Australian renewable energy development

first_img FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailPrint分享PV Magazine:Despite a massive drop in renewable energy investment seen last year, Australia’s renewable energy sector is forecast to have another record year in 2020. According to consultancy Rystad Energy, large-scale PV projects will be the largest source of new capacity additions this year, totaling 1.96 GW.Four large-scale PV projects, each with a capacity of 200 MW or more, are set to complete commissioning this year: Darlington Point (275 MW), Limondale (249 MW), Kiamal Stage 1 (200 MW) and Sunraysia (200 MW). The capacity to come online is geographically concentrated in New South Wales, with 51.5% – or 1.01 GW – scheduled to start operation in the state, Rystad finds.Overall, 3.6 GW of renewable energy capacity is expected to complete commissioning, up from 2.6 GW in 2019. Wind development will account for 1.57 GW, while 0.1 GW will come from batteries. It is also likely that new markets will begin to open up as pilot hydrogen projects come online and the off-grid sector takes off, led by the mining and oil & gas industries, Rystad finds. “The Australian renewables sector has been through a bit of a quiet spell as few new projects have broken ground in recent months, but we expect the industry to bounce back in the second half of 2020,” says Gero Farruggio, Head of Australia at Rystad Energy. “Projects with power purchase agreements (PPAs) and winners of government auction schemes and grants are scheduled to enter the construction phase, developers will be shifting to more favorable parts of the grid in Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland, and projects are lining up in central and northern New South Wales to replace the coal-fired Liddell power plant that is due to close by April 2023.”Rystad Energy expects between 1.0 GW and 1.5 GW of new utility PV projects will break ground in Australia’s National Electricity Market (NEM) in 2020. These projects will be located in southeast Queensland, central and northern New South Wales and central/eastern Victoria. For utility wind, there are currently projects representing 7.9 GW that have received development approval. This includes about 5.3 GW of projects larger than 350 MW and located in favorable parts of the grid with owners that have development experience, Rystad says.[Marija Maisch]More: Australia poised for record large-scale PV rollout in 2020 Rystad Energy: 2020 will be a record year for Australian renewable energy developmentlast_img read more

The Strategic Environment in Latin America

first_imgBy Dialogo February 14, 2013 Latin America is a very attractive setting to study and demonstrate international and global trends, as well as different risk factors of regional insecurity and how it relates to and affects its strategic environment. Even though it’s true that there are common features including language, religion and history, Latin America is currently a mosaic of countries with different characteristics. It is perhaps surprising to see that, even when several nations in the region are celebrating their 200 years of independence, they still have antagonistic forces obstructing common development, in which integration and cooperation should prevail. Currently, there are two main strategic guidelines: the first consists of four main global trends: 1. – Perceived risks of global interdependency, which are wider than in the past. 2. – Increased pressure to reach cosmopolitan solutions, either in human rights or in the environment. 3. – Global public positive or negative elements that are not defined at the national level. 4. – Blurred risk borderlines in the fields of space, time, and society. At present, it is difficult to determine who is actually polluting the environment or causing the financial crisis, since these events are the result of a chain of interactions. In the second one, there are six risk factors of regional insecurity: 1. – Strategic political vulnerabilities 2. – Economic vulnerabilities (weakness in the face of international macroeconomic swings, foreign debt, dependence on international prices of raw materials) 3. – Social vulnerabilities (marginalization, scarcity, emigration, unemployment, social inequality) 4. – Vulnerabilities related to security, new threats and conflicts (drug trafficking, money laundering, terrorism, and weapons trafficking) 5. – Vulnerabilities related to the environment and natural disasters 6. – Vulnerabilities of technological differences The amount of intergovernmental organizations that operate in the region do not always satisfy the expectations of countries which may clash with each other, making it more difficult to differentiate between actual common regional interests. Associated to these phenomena, there are other factors such as irredentism, protectionism, and a prominent increase in populism, which do not contribute to the stability required to move forward in terms of regional cooperation and integration. Another aspect that has contributed to reaching a more complex environment in political-strategic relations in the region has been the continued existence of certain geopolitical variables and border disputes. Indeed, the International Court of The Hague is deciding over four cases that involve Latin American countries: Nicaragua – Colombia: territorial and maritime demarcation dispute in the Western Caribbean between the two states. Peru – Chile: disputing the demarcation of the two states’ maritime areas in the Pacific Ocean and the recognition of a 200-nautical miles maritime zone. Ecuador – Colombia: disputing the spread of toxic herbicides near and throughout the border between both countries. Costa Rica – Nicaragua: disputing the incursion, occupation and use of territory and infractions in conventions and treaties. On the other hand, the economic crisis, which apparently has afflicted our region less significantly, has affected growth expectations in several cases, and has also led some countries to higher levels of poverty, with multiple political and social repercussions. In order to compensate for this, some countries have promoted a broader expansion in the region, especially towards Asia and China. In contrast, some states are imposing import tariffs to protect the local industry, generating a protectionist wave that might have a negative impact with reductions in the domestic economy and increases in inflation rates. It is known that domestic and international migration is another consequence of recession, which causes an imbalance in employment supply and demand, and also intensifies social and international conflicts. Likewise, the region is not immune to the impact of the energy crisis and the increasing shortage of non-renewable resources. In this regard, energy has become a security issue in some countries, while others consider the preservation of natural resources as a national defense matter. Consequently, several cooperation and integration projects in these fields are accompanied by strategic considerations. Another aspect that has gained international awareness over time is the increase of crime rates, making Latin American cities dramatically more dangerous than ever. This has caused insecurity to be one of the main concerns for the regional population, after the economic situation. It is possible that the equation of drug trafficking, organized crime and illicit weapons trafficking are the main contemporary threats, which affect producer, transit and consumer countries. This problem is fueling crime and the intensity of its actions, directly challenging authorities and the law, and imposing an increasing cycle through violence that, in some cases, may involve security institutions. In some way, the joint stability of Latin American nations will depend on how successful this crime problem is curbed. Others problems, such as environmental issues, natural disasters and pandemics, demand more and more application of the affected countries’ various resources –that could have been used to solve other needs. The concept of multidimensional security has allowed these variables to become a security problem. Since these problems have no boundaries, and nations are forced to face a situation of risk and insecurity characterized by their invisibility and unpredictability, given the States have an opportunity for cooperation. This was demonstrated after the earthquake and tsunami that affected Chile in February 2010, where several States established a solidarity that allowed not only assistance to those in need, but also an excellent example of international cooperation. The same cooperative effect is displayed due to the limited technological development of cyber security in some states, which forces the creation of new legal and scientific settings in order to prevent and control this vulnerability, since this threat does not recognize borders. Furthermore, the international trend suggests that it will continue to rise. On the other hand, we are witnessing more subtle future manifestations, such as scarcity of natural resources worldwide and its effects on Latin America. At first sight, the risk and insecurity factors previously mentioned suggest a new strategic environment for Latin America. From a realistic point of view, we know that we will always be facing different security risks; however, the current challenge is to understand the nature, projection, and objective reality of problems, lack of vision, or ideological interpretations, to offer solutions in a timely manner ¬and conveyed in fundamental actions. Latin America has a complex, collective and cooperative security architecture, allowing a relative stability with an important degree of institutionalization. If we consider the current strategic situation in Latin America, we can confirm that there are several countries in the region that are going through State consolidation and very diverse development processes. For instance, there are medium sized powers with clear economic leadership worldwide; small countries with political and economic leaderships; other States struggling to obtain a desired national unity as a first step towards development; while others are suffering from the effects of violent internal conflicts that have extended for over 50 years. Yet others are labeled as weak countries, whose constitutional character is permanently at risk. Finally, there is also the failed or collapsed state, such as Haiti, which paradoxically was the first Latin American State to gain its independence in 1804. To this we must add that the region is at an inflection point between two political, economic, social, and cultural models. The first model is characterized by States with low constitutional levels that do not adhere to or favor the integration of their economies in the global free market with political processes. On the other hand, there is a second model that is characterized by openness to the outside world, and is willing to take advantage of the opportunities offered by globalization in order to mitigate its vulnerabilities and which, generally, favors a deeper and more complete integration. In this scenario, it is the State – as the main political organization – who must respond to the demands of its population and grant them the common good that is demanded. To do so, they must provide security, along with development and wellbeing in a fundamental way. However, Latin America is a continent that must recognize that the best is yet to come; as a matter of fact, the joining factors are more than the dividing factors. The future depends on the region alone, and we will only make it possible if we do it in a context of unity, integration, and mutual respect regarding our differences and existing treaties, so that we can jointly achieve a reality of progress and development.last_img read more